"Importantly, exposure of macrophages to [e-cigarette vapor condensate] induced numerous same cellular and functional changes in [alveolar macrophage] function seen in cigarette smokers and patients with COPD [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]".
"In terms of cancer-causing molecules in cigarette smoke, as opposed to cigarette vapour, there are certainly reduced numbers of carcinogens".
"I don't believe e-cigarettes are more harmful than ordinary cigarettes - but we should have a cautious scepticism that they are as safe as we are being led to believe", Prof Thickett said. It is a popular belief as is purported by the e-cigarette makers that they are safer than traditional cigarettes. It also impaired the function of certain cells that remove bad things like dust, bacteria and allergens called alveolar macrophages.
The e-cigarette vapour boosts the production of inflammatory chemicals and disables key protective cells in the lung that keep the air spaces clear of potentially harmful particles, revealed the study published online in the journal Thorax.
Although vaping is increasing in popularity, most of the current body of research has focused only on the chemical composition of e-cigarette liquid before it is vaped.
The results showed that the condensate was significantly more harmful to the cells than e-cigarette fluid and that these effects worsened as the "dose" increased.
Switching to e-cigarettes could help smokers to give up smoking, it added.
"However, since electronic cigarettes are used nearly exclusively in the United Kingdom by current or former smokers, the key question is how this adverse effect compares with that of exposure to cigarette smoke".
Amidst this controversy, the Birmingham researchers extracted immune cells or alveolar macrophages, from lung tissue samples that were taken from eight non-smokers who were never diagnosed with asthma or COPD. This study, however, suggests that long-term vaping can lead to lung damage.
Vaping or smoking e-cigarettes has been found to be a harmful practice.
"Any smoker considering e-cigarettes should switch completely without delay".
The US Surgeon General has however issued warnings that use of e-cigarettes among the young can lead to several problems such as nicotine addiction, mood swings and impairment of brain development.
Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Trump's press secretary, insisted on Wednesday the White House wasn't targeting only Trump critics. Trump, often critical of the Mueller investigation, told the newspaper it is a "rigged witch hunt. a sham".
Mexico's incoming president-elect has expressed his willingness to negotiate a more free and fair deal with the U.S. Brent crude oil futures were at $71.11 per barrel at 0712 GMT, up 35 cents, or 0.5 percent, from their last close.
Trump said that Patton's words "still ring true", noting that the American military was the most powerful in the world. President Donald Trump made no mention of Senator John McCain who has been one of the president's fiercest critics.
Police did say they found the bodies near where they found Shanann Watts' . "Her husband Chris Watts ", Rzucek said in the post . Frederick is in Weld County, about 15 miles southeast of Longmont. "Please keep Shanann's parents and brother in your prayers".
Omarosa also had a bridal "going away" party before her wedding with none other than aides close to the president . Trump had "always been kind to me, as I said repeatedly in dozens and dozens of interviews", she continued.
Jason Rhian spent several years honing his skills with internships at NASA , the National Space Society and other organizations. But an 8-foot-wide carbon composite shield will absorb the intense heat and keep the spacecraft and its instruments cool.
Washington says negotiating a tougher nuclear deal than the one sealed in 2015 is Iran's only escape-route from the sanctions. "As we saw in the past, consumers are hit by the most in trade wars, which increase products' prices".
Lara Trump says, "It sounds a little like, obviously, that there are some things you've got in the back pocket to pull out. Frederica Wilson , D-Fla., accused Trump of being insensitive to the widow of a soldier killed in a 2017 ambush in Niger.
The United States is the biggest destination for Turkish steel exports with 11 percent of the Turkish export volume. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says his government "will not lose the economic war ".
Donald Trump Mocks 'Fake News Media' as ‘Opposition Party’
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Rogers re-match sees Halep overcome Garcia to set up Barty semi
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Case Keenum , who signed a two-year contract with Denver in March, is now listed as the Broncos starter. They don't know everything. "And when your time's called, you better be ready to step up and go".
Juventus Match Abandoned After Fans Mob Ronaldo
Juventus went on to win 5-0 against their youth team, but viewers weren't all that impressed by Ronaldo's contribution. But minutes later a huge swarm of fans invaded the pitch and the game was subsequently abandoned.
ULA Delta IV Parker Solar Probe Heavy Scrub Statement
The device will measure the electromagnetic field of the Sun and determine the nature of the particles emitted by the star. The forecast shows a 60 percent chance of favorable weather conditions for launch - noted in NASA.
Liverpool vs. West Ham live stream
Salah's goal featured an important contribution from new signing Naby Keita , while Guinea's Keita was excellent throughout. If you lose 4-0, it's not to have any excuses but I think in football, two or three balls decide the score.
DOD releases 4-part plan for Space Force
Satellites provide communications, navigation, intelligence and other services vital to the military and the national economy. Finally, the Pentagon would also establish a US Space Command to be led by a four-star general or flag officer, he said.
Transfer flurry for every team except Tottenham Hotspur
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'Turkey's partnership with U.S. 'in jeopardy'
Erdogan blamed his country's economic downturn on the USA and other nations that he claims are waging "war" against his country. He has said Turkey's economy remains strong, noting a 7.4 percent growth rate in the first three months of this year.