Jupiter Cyclone Storms Captured By Juno In Another Stunning Image

Deep gas bands shapely cyclones — NASA's Juno reveals more of Jupiter's secrets

"The configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets", the researchers write.

Juno has been orbiting our solar system's biggest planet since 2016. Moreover, Prof. Kaspi and Dr. Galanti developed a method of determining not only the overall depth of the flow, but also precisely how those flows, hidden beneath Jupiter's clouds, change with depth. "We tried to fit the Cassini data in the same way as Juno's data, but simply it did not work".

The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, is one of the world's top-ranking multidisciplinary research institutions.

Since the famous stripes of the planet Jupiter were seen by Galileo in the early 17th century, scientists have wondered whether they are just colorful bands or a significant layer of the planet. That is quite a bit deeper than previous estimates, and is revising scientists' picture of Jupiter's atmosphere as well as its inner layers.

At Jupiter's north and south poles, the cyclones are so densely packed that they actually touch one another.

Massive amounts of new data gathered by NASA's Juno spacecraft have drawn back the veils on Jupiter's cloudy surface, revealing unparalleled insights into the planet's mysterious depths and the continent-sized cyclones at its poles. But where these cyclones came from, and how long they've been raging above the planet's surface, is still a mystery, although Adriani suspects they've been there for a long time already. At the south pole, it was the same arrangement, only with five storms.

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Until now, scientists have had scant information about what lies below Jupiter's thick red, brown, yellow and white clouds, and a surface famed for its distinctive dark and light bands and "great red spot". But until these latest results we didn't know much about how far those winds reached below the uppermost surface of the planet's atmosphere.

The study is published across four separate articles in the journal nature (1,2,3 and 4), covering the planets asymmetrical gravitational field, polar cyclones, atmospheric flows and interior makeup. That's much deeper than previously thought. "This was certainly a surprise".

"We'd never seen anything like it", O'Neill said. In comparison, the Earth's atmosphere is less than one millionth of our planet's mass. 2018. Jupiter's atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep. "Until now, we only had a superficial understanding of them and have been able to relate these stripes to cloud features along Jupiter's jets".

Those deep jet streams also reveal useful clues about Jupiter's gravitational field.

The winds of the planet are determined by the same laws that regulate the atmospheric circulation on the Earth where the high and low pressure zones, associated with different densities of the atmosphere, force the movement of large air masses: the deeper the winds, the greater the atmospheric masses put into motion and the greater the variation of gravity generated. "These density variations and the ensuing gravity signatures are measured by Juno when it passes by the planet". By measuring the difference in frequencies between transmitted and received signals, Iess was able to infer minute changes in the probe's speed, caused by variation in Jupiter's gravitational field. The data allowed researchers to measure Juno's velocity down to 0.01mm/s accuracy, even while the shuttle is traveling at speeds of up to 70 km/s in orbit.

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