Researchers propose 5 distinct types of adult-onset diabetes

Diabetes insulin-syringe

But researchers in Finland and Sweden say that there is a more complex picture, and that the results of their study will usher in a new period of personalized medications, the BBC reports.

Currently, the medical community broadly recognizes two types of diabetes, which is a disease that impairs the body's ability to properly produce or regulate blood sugar.

After analyzing the data of almost 15,000 diabetics using information taken from four registries in Sweden and Finland, the team found that Type 2 is actually made up of four categories, including two of the most severe types of the disease.

Cluster 2: This category is labelled "severe insulin-deficient diabetes", affecting 17.5 per cent of patients, As above, those in this bracket tend to be young and at a healthy weight, but it's not thought that the immune system is implicated in the development of diabetes. "More people who are at high risk of Type 2 diabetes must be identified so that they can get the education, care and support they need to reduce it", she said.

The results were confirmed using data from 5,795 other adult patients across another three further databases from Sweden and Finland.

Still, the findings seem to be a positive step toward improved treatment of diabetes, which affects more than 420 million people worldwide. They looked at six variables that are often used to determine the type and severity of a specific diabetes case, from the age of diagnosis to BMI to the level of insulin resistance.

Type 2 diabetes is to a great extent observed as an illness of poor way of life as muscle to fat ratio can influence the way the insulin works.

Published online March 1 in The Lancet: Diabetes & Endocrinology, one study-led by Emma Ahlqvist, PhD, with the Lund University Diabetes Center in Malmo, Sweden-suggests patients be divided into five subgroups by disease progression and complications.

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The team, from Lund University and the Institute for Molecular Medicine in Helsinki, examined data from 14,625 patients in five cohorts between January 2008 and November 2016.

Cluster 3: Severe insulin-resistant diabetes is mostly linked to obesity.

"Today, diagnoses are performed by measuring blood sugar". New research confirms that in general it's most commonly diagnosed in the young. Of this, a majority - 39 to 47 per cent - were elderly people with mild diabetes while 18-20 per cent were obese.

They believe that the study might help tailor and target treatment and lay the foundation for precision medicine in the future. The five types found had different characteristics, with different complications, and called for different treatment needs.

The third "severe" group were people with auto-immune diabetes corresponding to the original "type-1" diagnosis. Cluster 3 (n = 1,373) was characterized by severe insulin resistance and high BMI, whereas cluster 4 (n = 1,942) was characterized by obesity, but not insulin resistance.

The authors noted that more research is needed on the issue.

In the same way that a patient requiring a transfusion must receive the right blood type, diabetes sub-types need different treatments, the study suggested. "For example, whether we'd find the same subtypes in people of different ethnicity or nationality".

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